I believe there will always be a 'chink' in every wall, but we will always be stronger together. The importance of pursuing our Dream NOW could not be more relevant. Paterson lighting design , Nicholas Aguilar musical direction , and Isaac Weisselberg assistant director. Subway: F to York Street 3-minute walk. Running time: 65 minutes.
Instagram: www. Katie is an award-winning director who specializes in devised and experimental theatre. Her new theatre company, Yonder Window, made its maiden voyage in with a multidisciplinary, multi-cultural, tri-lingual international production called The Dream Project, premiering at Muv arte in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico. Yonder Window Theatre Company YWTC is a platform for cultural conversations and exchange committed to connecting with artists around the world.
YWTC is dedicated to the exploration of cross-cultural and social relationships through the use of interdisciplinary art, creating innovative productions that explore the universal themes of the human experience both domestically and abroad. The production received rave reviews. Phase 1. February Along with local artists of the gallery Muv arte in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico the company defined the core aesthetic and foundation of the piece.
March The Company reunites in New York City to further develop the story, strengthen the cohesive language of the company, and add new company members to gear up for a large-scale production in phase 2. Phase 2. Dates TBD. The sleep stage at awakening has thus been unknown. However, as most such dreams are likely to have been from REM sleep, it was a realistic assumption that the dream-lag effect occurs at minimum for REM dreams.
At issue was whether it also occurs for NREM dreams. The present study shows that the dream-lag effect occurs for REM dreams but not N2 dreams. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.
The dream-lag effect also suggests a complex non-linear memory reactivation function, which is supported by Medina et al. Not known, however, is whether a N2 dream-lag effect and non-linear reactivation could be found for learning tasks whose consolidation has been shown to be dependent on NREM sleep, such as maze learning  or learning on paired-associates and simple motor tasks such as the pursuit rotor . We acknowledge the potential confound in the study that the N2 dream reports were shorter than the REM dream reports, as would be expected from the previous literature .
However, there are three reasons to doubt that this confound accounts for the difference between REM and N2 dreams on the dream-lag effect. Firstly, with a mean length of 86 words the N2 dreams were not especially brief. Secondly, there was no significant overall difference between the REM and N2 dream reports on their mean correspondence scores with diary records.
And, thirdly, REM dream reports of below median length in words actually showed a greater dream-lag effect than did the REM dream reports of above median length. The latter finding may be because the longer dreams are more elaborated, and hence may have more details that are distant from, or that cannot be matched to any waking life event.
The prediction that delayed incorporation of waking life events would occur more for dreams later in the night was not confirmed.
Although there was a greater correspondence for days 5—7 than for days 3—4 and days 8—9 for the earlier and the later REM dream sub-samples, the differences between days 5—7 and days 3—4, and between days 5—7 and days 8—9, were only significant for the earlier REM dreams. Indeed, the mean correspondence of dream reports with diary records across all the periods i. This may be because a progressive decrease in direct references to waking life and increased abstraction occurs with increased duration of sleep  — .
We thus recommend that future investigations of the dream-lag effect assess the dreams of early and middle REM periods, rather than just the generally later, home spontaneous awakening dreams used in the previous literature. We acknowledge a second potential confound in the study, in that the mean time SSO for the REM dreams was greater than for the N2 dreams. There is now a considerable literature indicating that some aspects of memory consolidation occur during sleep  ,  ,  — .
However, little experimentation on this has been performed in humans across multiple nights. We therefore reiterate Nielsen et al. This would entail comparing the characteristics of delayed incorporations of memory elements and waking life events into dreams with the characteristics of incorporations for time periods earlier and later than 5—7 days.
In conducting such an analysis, Nielsen et al. They interpreted this as supporting a socio-emotional memory consolidation function for sleep that takes place 5—7 days after waking life events. An alternative possibility for a difference between immediate and delayed memory processing during sleep is Walker's proposal  that, over time, sleep reduces the felt emotional component in memories, leaving instead just the knowledge that an emotion was present. We suggest that dream content might be used to test Walker's proposal, in that delayed dream incorporations would be predicted to have lower emotional load than would immediate incorporations.
This investigation of the characteristics of incorporations of waking life events into dreams would require that participants identify which parts of each dream report, and which parts of each daily diary record, they consider correspond with each other. This detailing of where correspondences are identified as occurring in the reports would be an improvement on the design of the current study, which did not require the particular correspondences to be recorded. This detailing of correspondences was not done in the current study because of the high workload commitment already asked of the participants, which resulted in a maximum number of separate dream report and daily diary record comparisons for one participant.
In summary, we have shown that the dream-lag effect occurs for REM but not N2 dreams. These results point to a memory consolidation function or mechanism that is specific to REM sleep. The importance of such a mechanism is shown by suggestions of a connection between sleep quality and mood disorders, and that mood disorders and nightmares can result if emotional memory processing does not occur during sleep  , . In addition to pointing toward such a sleep-dependent memory consolidation function, the content of immediate and delayed incorporation dreams might be used to test theories of the characteristics of memory processing across time during sleep.
All participants began their daily diaries on the same day, the Sunday of the week prior to the pre-arranged sleep laboratory week, and then slept for two nights in the sleep laboratory on the next week, either Monday and Wednesday nights or Tuesday and Thursday nights. In the laboratory, sleep was monitored by polysomnography with electrodes at: F4 and C4 for EEG, applied according to the standard 10—20 system; above right outer canthus and below left outer canthus for EOG-detected eye movements; left and right mastoids for reference, and on the chin for electromyography EMG.
Awakenings were not scheduled to occur during the first 80 minutes of sleep. The first awakening was scheduled from the first stage 2 period N2 after the first 80 minutes of sleep, then from the next REM period, and thereafter whenever 10 minutes of either REM or N2 were obtained. Confirmatory sleep scoring was conducted later by a second scorer.
Awakenings were conducted at the end of 10 minutes of either REM or N2 sleep. When the stage criteria were met, the participant was awoken by a buzzer system. Recordings were given a random identifying number and each morning were sent by email to a researcher blind to the awakening conditions and blind to details of the participants. This researcher transcribed each dream report. The ratings were recorded using a matrix as described by Blagrove et al. An example portion of a matrix can be found in Table 1.
Once you have finished that column please move on to the next column; so, you then read the next dream and then look at all the diary entries in turn, again entering a number 0 to 4 in each cell. Again, the emphasis is on rating how much correspondence a given dream has with each and every diary entry. After the matrix was completed and returned to the experimenters, the level of matching between dream reports and diary records was computed as a function of number of days between diary day and dream report, for REM and N2 dreams separately.
When the dream report is compared to the diary record of the day before the night of the dream, this time period is termed Day 1, the period for a comparison with the day before that day is termed Day 2, and so on. Only dream reports of at least 20 words were included in the analyses. A confounding problem for the correspondence rating procedure arises because of the occasional incorporation of the laboratory experience into dreams. It is not feasible to determine whether such laboratory references occur solely due to the memory of the pre-sleep preparation procedures and laboratory environment, or due to being asleep in bed in the laboratory at the time the dream occurs, or to both of these factors.
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Therefore, on sleep laboratory nights participants completed their diaries before attending the sleep laboratory; the dream report would then be compared only to the experiences of the day prior to being in the laboratory. This procedure of not recording sleep laboratory events in the diary necessarily leads to the underestimation of the incorporation of recent day 1 events into dreams, as it disallows any matches of laboratory related dream content to a diary record of the experiences of being in the sleep laboratory. However, this day 1 correspondence level is not needed for the identification of the dream-lag, the latter just requiring the days 5—7 correspondence score to be greater than that for days 3—4 and greater than the correspondence score for days 8 and higher.
All participants gave written informed consent and were treated in accordance with the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki.
Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. Introduction It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams .
Download: PPT. Figure 1. Correspondence between REM dream reports and diary records as a function of time. Figure 2. Correspondence between REM dream reports and diary records as a function of time period. Figure 3. Correspondence between N2 dream reports and diary records as a function of time. Figure 4. Correspondence between N2 dream reports and diary records as a function of time period. Discussion Previous work on the delayed incorporation of waking life events and memories into dreams has used dream reports collected after spontaneous awakenings at home.
Table 1. Example portion of a matrix used to record correspondence ratings 0—4 between dream reports and diary records.
Acknowledgments We thank Paul Willner for his comments and advice on the manuscript. References 1. Kramer M The dream experience. A systematic exploration. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
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